According to the composition of the collections of the world's museums of architecture and design, the future generation will judge the quality of life , the breadth of imagination and way of thinking of their predecessors.
The content of the article:
- 1 Design Museum
- 2 Netherlands Architecture Institute
- 3 Cooper Hewitt Design Museum
- 4 Vitra Museum
- 5 Museum of Architectural Drawing
- 6 Danish Design Museum
- 7 National Building Museum
- 8 MAK Museum
- 9 Bauhaus Museums
- 10 ADAM Museum
- 11 Gaudi Center
- 12 Design Museum
< h4 class = "p1" style = "text-align: center;"> London, UK
A year ago, almost a year ago, the design museum changed the area and the building – from the Tower Bridge on the south bank of the Thames, it moved west, to Kensington High Street. In a snow-white modernist building, converted from a former banana warehouse by English designer Terence Conran , it was cramped. A new building was found for the museum, which was formerly occupied by the Institute of the Commonwealth. The 1962 building, renovated by the office of architect John Pawson, is located in close proximity to the Royal College of Art, Science Museum, Victoria and Albert Museum, Serpentine Gallery. Thus, the Design Museum entered this unique London art cluster.
The project cost £ 83 million, raised through a fundraising campaign. Auction house Phillips held a special auction for the Design Museum.
Museum Director Dejan Sudzic does not focus on a specific genre of design, considering everything at once – architectural, industrial, and graphic. There is no permanent exhibition in the Museum, but there is a constant rotation of temporary exhibitions. Ten thousand square meters of exhibition space and five floors in the new space allow the museum to receive four hundred thousand visitors annually. < span class = "s1">The second floor houses the administration, storage and library. On the mezzanines, one masterpiece from the museum's collection is periodically exhibited – for example, a Kalashnikov assault rifle, a Vespa Clubman moped, an Olivetti typewriter, a Barack Obama election poster and British road signs.
Netherlands Architecture Institute
In the park opposite the Boijmans-van Beuningen Museum you can see the building as if it was assembled from different sections and materials – metal, brick and concrete. Architect Jo Kunen designed it in 1988. The Netherlands Institute of Architecture is a multifunctional institution that archives the history of Dutch architecture, urban planning and design. It has five exhibition halls, a bookstore, a café, a library of forty thousand volumes, and a platform for lectures, conferences and discussions. The permanent exhibition analyzes the impact of urbanization on the human perception of the world. The collection of the institute contains works of prominent Dutch architects from the 19th century, including Kuypers, de Klerk, Berlage – drawings, sketches, models, models, photographs and much more. And finally, on the balance sheet of the institute is a unique example of Dutch functionalism – a villa built in 1933 for Albertus Sonneveld by architects Johannes Brinkmann and Lendert van der Flygt. The building, where the original interior has been fully preserved, is open to the public.
Cooper Hewitt Design Museum
New York, USA
The museum was founded in 1897 by the granddaughters of industrialist and philanthropist Peter Cooper Amy , Elenor and Sarah Hewitt as part of the Foundation for the Development of Science and the Arts . It occupies 64 rooms in the 1903 listed building, an opulent three-story mansion that once belonged to coal magnate Andrew Carnegie. By the way, it was the first building in the country with an elevator, autonomous central heating system and a prototype of an air conditioner.
The Hewitt sisters at one time were inspired by the already existing similar European gatherings, distinguished by some eclecticism. Among the most interesting exhibits of the collection, which includes 250 thousand items of storage, the chair in which President Abraham Lincoln sat in 1860 when he visited Cooper Union College, wallpapers from the Royal Pavilion in Brighton, made according to drawings by William Morris, prints from drawings by Le Corbusier and Andy Warhol, furniture designed by Peter Behrens, Héctor Guimard, Christopher Dresser, Charles and Ray Eames, antique Persian silks and a Rolls-Royce car owned by The Beatles and donated to the museum by John Lennon.
< p class = "p3"> The interior of the mansion itself deserves special attention: a garden lobby with stained-glass windows, a music room and a dining room, where Mark Twain and Marie Curie were.
The house on Fifth Avenue in New York was closed for three years for a $ 64 million renovation by the architectural firm Diller Scofidio + Renfro , and once again opened its doors to visitors.
Weil am Rhein, Germany
Weil am Rhein, a pretty town in the countryside on the border of Germany and Switzerland, is known worldwide not only for the furniture company located there, but also for the location of a unique collection of architectural creations by Frank Gehry, Zaha Hadid, Nicholas Grimshaw, Tadao Ando, Renzo Piano , Alvar Siza, SANAA Bureau, Buckminster Fuller, Jean Prouvé. However, in addition to the collection of buildings from iconic architects, the president of Vitra, Rolf Felbaum, a man with inexhaustible energy, since 1977, has been collecting all the key objects of world design, created from 1800 to the present. And this is more than twenty thousand pieces of furniture, lamps and archival unicates signed by Charles and Ray Eames, Werner Panton, Alexander Girard, Jasper Morrison, Alvar Aalto, Hella Jongerius, Tom Dixon, Gerrit Rietveld, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Lelyn Gray Corbusier, the Campana brothers, Gaetano Pesce, Ettore Sottsass, Philippe Starck, Martin Bass.
Vitra Campus houses a museum building. It was built in 1989 by Frank Gehry. But the interior spaces of the Constructivist building, the first construction by a Californian architect in Europe, are used for large exhibition projects, while the outstanding collection of furniture was outside the public field and almost never exhibited. Last summer, the area problem was resolved. Architectural bureau Herzog & amp; de Meuron built a new building called Schaudepot. A monolithic volume with a triangular pediment and a facade without windows, made of hand-molded bricks, organically fit into the composition of the architectural ensemble and entered into a dialogue with neighboring buildings: the fire station of Zaha Hadid and the factory of Alvar Siza. Almost the entire famous collection is exhibited inside, but there is also a place for temporary exhibitions.
Museum of Architectural Drawing
Everything that an architect creates on paper is often intermediate in nature. The architect's creative thought is realized in the creation of design sketches, representing an intrinsic genre – architectural graphics. In a sense, collecting watercolors and washes is an aesthetic activity, especially when the culture of 3D visualization has practically abolished paper media. Collections of architectural graphics are available in the Academy of Arts and in the Hermitage in St. Petersburg, the Shchusev State Museum of Architecture in Moscow, the Technical University of Berlin, the Museum of Architecture in Munich, the Metropolitan Museum in New York – there was no separate museum anywhere in the world.
In 2013, the Museum of Architectural Drawing opened in East Berlin, in the Prenzlauer Berg district. The building was designed by the bureau “SPEECH Choban & amp; Kuznetsov “… The compact volume is adjacent to the firewall of the adjacent 4-storey residential building. The building is formed by five, in accordance with the number of floors, offset from each other, clearly defined blocks. Concrete walls alternate with panoramic glazing. On the first floor there is a library, on the upper floor there are exhibition halls and an archive – a unique collection of drawings and watercolors by Western European architects and draftsmen of the 18th – first half of the 19th centuries, which has been collected by the architect Sergei Tchoban for many years. The museum regularly hosts exhibitions of hand-drawn graphics by prominent architects of the past and present.
Danish Design Museum
From the earliest days of its existence, the main goal of the museum has been to emphasize quality in design, an idea that comes from the natural Danish solidity, love of minimalism, simplicity and function.
Founded in 1890 by the Confederation of Danish Industry and the Ny Carlsberg Museumslegat and opened five years later to the public, the Design Museum was conceived as a source of inspiration for local manufacturers and artisans. The idea won over with its simplicity: access to the best design samples was supposed to motivate the Danes to improve their skills and raise the level of development of the industry. And the goal was achieved. A little time passed, and Danish design greatly shaken the position of world leaders.
The museum building is located in the heart of Copenhagen, a few steps from the New harbor in a 1757 Rococo style building, formerly the hospital of King Frederick V.
A pioneer of Danish design was involved in the reconstruction of the former hospital < strong> Kaare Clint , whose creations, including the famous Faaborg chair, are on display today. It consists of objects of decorative and applied art, furniture, interior design, created in different years not only by Danish industrial designers such as Arne Jacobsen, Jacob Jensen, Hans Wegner, but also by world stars. The museum has several permanent exhibitions at once, one of which is “Dream and Reality: XX century in arts and crafts and design.” In addition, it houses a unique collection of German and Chinese porcelain, as well as the largest library of Scandinavian design prototypes from 1900 to 2000. And yet the main pride of the museum is the richest collection of royal porcelain and items from the famous Flora Danica service.
National Building Museum
Brick Victorian Museum Building, Designed by Civil Engineer Montgomery Meigsom in 1837, the townspeople for some reason disliked and mercilessly criticized. The building was dubbed “Meigs's red barn” and it almost came to demolition, but nothing happened. The National Building Museum opened here, entering which you seem to immediately find yourself in a fabulous palace. The Great Hall is a huge space filled with sunlight, surrounded on all sides by arcade galleries and high-ceilinged windows. A colossal Corinthian colonnade hugs the interior. The terracotta frieze depicts the marching troops of the Civil War. The hall itself is used for temporary exhibitions that always achieve a wow effect and create an unforgettable visual experience. In 2015, the designers of Snarkitecture immersed the museum in a beach atmosphere with an ocean of a million translucent plastic balls. Last summer, James Corner Field Operations created a glacial landscape here with thirty icebergs under the roof. Recently, Chicago-based Gang Architects have built a grandiose installation here called The Beehive.
The reason for the founding of the MAK Museum of Applied Arts , Museum Fur Angewandte Kunst , was the visit of the famous art critic and professor of the Vienna University Rudolf Eitelberger to London in the middle of the 19th century, where he first of all went to museums. It was the South Kensington Museum (now the Victoria and Albert Museum) that inspired the Austrian to discover something similar in Vienna. The implementation of the idea began in 1852 with the approval of Emperor Franz Joseph, given to the creation of the Imperial and Royal Austrian Museum of Art and Industry, and then the construction in 1872 of a building on the Ringstrasse designed by the architect Heinrich von Ferstel .
Rudolph, the ideological inspirer of the entire enterprise, was appointed as the first director of the museum Eitelberger. The collection began to take shape from borrowed exhibits, as well as gifts from the imperial family, monasteries and private collectors. The items were provided by the Imperial-Royal Polytechnic Institute in Vienna. On the basis of the museum, in the building of the former cannon factory, a school of applied arts and crafts was opened, from which the artists Oskar Kokoschka and Gustav Klimt graduated. The sketch made by Klimt for the frieze of an outstanding example of Viennese Art Nouveau – the Stoclet Palace in Brussels – is one of the exhibits that MAK is proud of, as well as the “Viennese” bent wood chairs from the Tonet factory, also on display. Today, the museum surprises with a variety of objects of applied art and industrial design, created in the period from the Middle Ages to the present day.
The Art Nouveau section is represented by glass, porcelain, silver and textiles produced by the Vienna workshops, founded in 1903 by Joseph Hoffmann and Koloman Moser.
Lovers of the Orient will find Chinese porcelain and Japanese lacquerware in the Asia permanent exhibition. The section dedicated to contemporary design, where, in particular, the famous sofas of Franz West and furniture sets by Hermann Cech are exhibited, was entrusted to design the American minimalist Donald Judd.
in Berlin and Dessau, Germany
In 2019 the world will celebrate the centenary of the famous educational institution, the concept of which is extremely important for the history of architecture and design of the XX-XXI centuries. Graduate School of Civil Engineering and Design ( Staatliches Bauhaus ) opened in Weimar on April 25, 1919.
There are now three institutions in Germany that study the school's heritage: Bauhaus Museum in Weimar, Bauhaus Archive in Berlin and Bauhaus Foundation in Dessau.
In 1925, when the Weimar authorities stopped subsidizing the school, it was transferred to Dessau, where its founder, architect Walter Gropius (1883-1969) built a new building. In 1979, a museum was opened in Berlin in a building designed by the same Gropius. Its permanent exhibition is dedicated to the key names of the Bauhaus teachers: Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee, Johannes Itten, Marcel Breuer, Hannes Mayer, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Hitt Pinchas and, of course, Walter Gropius himself.
However, a museum will also open in Dessau for the anniversary, which will house an extensive collection of the Bauhaus Foundation. The victory in the international competition for the design of the future building was won by a team of young Spanish architects González Hinz Zabala , ahead of 815 competitors. A massive parallelepiped, dressed in a glass shell, is designed in the style of the famous school. The construction site was selected in the central city park of Dessau.
There was no doubt that the design museum was needed by Brussels, the city of star designers, but it opened only the year before last.
A place for the ADAM (Art & amp; Design Atomium Museum) was found in the north of the Belgian capital, in Hazel Park, next to the famous Atomium, built for the 1958 World's Fair, and a tourist attraction at its foot, “Mini Europe”. 5,000 sq. M was allocated for the new museum institution. m in the Trade Mart exhibition center. The 1975 building of the American architect John Portman with panoramic glazing has acquired a new entrance area.
To design this seemingly trifle, the star, Jean Nouvel , was invited, who piled a forest of metal posts and mirrored panels, which reflected the greenery of the surrounding park. The life-affirming colors of the entrance set up the visitor in an optimistic mood, especially since juicy colors and playful forms await him in the sequel.
In the ADAM spaces designed by Lhoas & amp; Lhoas , a permanent exhibition has been launched, and it is based on the “Plasticarium”, the result of thirty years of work by the passionate collector Philippe Dessel . Collection – several thousand plastic objects (furniture, kitchen utensils, typewriters, refrigerators) by Olivetti, Kartell, Vitra, Dupon, Swatch, creations of iconic designers such as Verner Panton, Philippe Starck, Ron Arad, Gaetano Pesce, Eero Saarinen, Cesare Casati, Emanuele Ponzi, Ron Arad, Campana brothers.
It all started in 1987, when Dessel, having picked up Joe Colombo's futuristic plastic chair from the trash heap, thought about the short memory of humanity and the frailty of all things. ADAM features true works of art, whose unusual provocative designs are forgotten in everyday use.
Architect Antonio Gaudi is a native of Reus, and the museum is a tribute to the Catalan city for his famous son, and, of course, the main attraction. A four-story blue glass building designed by architects Joan Sibina , Tosiake Tange and Gabriel Bosquez appeared in the market square of Reus in 2007. It is the only institution dedicated to the legacy of the author of the famous Sagrada Familia and other iconic buildings in Barcelona. It is packed to overflowing with modern multimedia technology and audiovisual devices designed to create an unforgettable experience of the great Catalan. The exhibits of the museum can be touched, turned on and off, because they are all models. Gaudí Center has a giant map of Barcelona embedded in the floor of the second floor. The dots mark the buildings built by the title character. One press of a button, and a screen with a film immediately appears on the wall, which provides detailed historical information about the cultural heritage site. In the cinema hall of the museum with rotating mushroom chairs, films about the life and work of Gaudí are continuously shown. There is a restaurant on the top floor.
“Finnish form” – a permanent exhibition (ceramics, glass, furniture and clothing) of the museum is devoted to the history of the development of design directly in Finland, the main feature of which has always been a dialogue with nature. In the forms of household items – furniture by Yuryo Kukkapuro, glass vases and jugs from Iittala, Karhula, Riihimaki factories, Arabia clay plates, Alvar Aalto lamps, a similar natural metaphor was invariably present in the designs of Marimekko fabrics.
Top two floors of a building designed by the architect Gustave Nyström in the historic center of Helsinki, near the Lutheran Cathedral of St. John, are reserved for temporary exhibitions, often telling about world achievements in the field of design. The museum was founded in 1873 by the Finnish Society of Crafts and Design as a visual aid for students of the Helsinki School of Crafts (predecessor of Aalto University), and in the same year at the World Exhibition in Vienna the first seven hundred of its exhibits.
Today, constantly replenishing funds already include 75 thousand items, and this is in addition to unique drawings, photographs and drawings.
Among the recent exhibition projects of the Design Museum in Helsinki, a very curious and revealing retrospective of the works of the classic of Finnish design Eero Aarnio, such as, for example, his textbook futuristic chairs “Ball”, “Bubble” and “Tomato”, made of plexiglass and plastic in the form of truncated plastic balls.