In honor of the country's 90th anniversary, its symbol, the Girl with a Paddle sculpture, recently painted by a popular graffiti artist, returns to the historic site Paint with Lampas. We recall the key events in the almost century-long history of Gorky Park /d45eac8ca058eaadde5d6f85f38ecfb5.jpg” />
The country's main park turns 90. On this occasion, graffiti artist Pokras Lampas painted the symbol of the park, the legendary sculpture “Girl with an oar”, with texts in the spirit of modern calligraphy. The original sculpture was destroyed during the bombings during the Great Patriotic War, but its image was conveyed by old photographs and sketches, according to which Temporum, a company specializing in 3D printing, made a life-size replica. The sculpture will be placed in front of the park entrance. .jpg” width=”728″ height=”1092″ class=”lazy-image__image _align-center” data-v-64ca9b5a=”1″ alt=”Girl with a paddle: 90 years of Gorky Park (photo 2)” />
During its almost century-old history, the park has experienced a lot. After the war, captured Nazi equipment was exhibited here, in the nineties they rode the most famous rollercoaster in the country, and today they play beach volleyball and go to psychedelic exhibitions at the Garage Museum.
The Garage Museum of Contemporary Art, designed by Rem Koolhaas and OMA.
Meanwhile, these lands began to be developed even under the Vyatichi people. There was a settlement here, which suffered from the raids of the Crimean Tatars, since there was a ford across the Moskva River nearby. In the 1930s, the Crimean Bridge was built in its place, which got its name from that ancient history. Until the 19th century, this territory was considered a suburban wilderness with vegetable gardens and grazing.
Life was in full swing in the neighboring Neskuchny, where the boyars settled, giving rise to famous noble families. The Stroganovs, Trubetskoys, Golitsyns built estates there and laid out beautiful parks. Pavilion “Hunting lodge”, for example, where they play “What? Where? When? ”, remained from those times. By the way, it was here that one of the first Russian businesswomen or “great craftswomen to arrange their affairs”, as they were called in the 19th century, settled here – Natalya Petrovna Chernysheva, in the marriage of Golitsyn, the richest woman of her time, who was personally congratulated by the emperors on her name day.
Attraction in Gorky Park. 1971-1975.
This area began to be called boring under Demidov, who raised the domestic metallurgy, and at his leisure he liked to joke, dressing the watchmen with garden sculptures that frighten guests. Folk festivities (1 ruble with food and music) were organized in the park back in aristocratic times. The tradition was fixed with the advent of the Air Theater, which gathered all of Moscow for its performances. It was called aerial, as the performances were given in the open air with trees and ponds instead of scenery. Shchepkin and Mochalov played, and up to two thousand spectators were recruited.People's Observatory of Gorky Park. 1987.
The current part of the Central Park of Culture and Culture, adjacent to the Neskuchny Garden, served as a place for out-of-town walks throughout the 19th century. But the site from the Muzeon side was not so lucky. There were wastelands and landfills. In the 1920s, it was precisely this circumstance that attracted the attention of the all-Union headman, who was looking for a free city site for the First All-Russian Agricultural and Handicraft-Industrial Exhibition. A competition was held for the arrangement of the exposition, which was won by the chief architect of Soviet classicism Ivan Zholtovsky.
He proposed a regular site layout with clear axis lines. They pushed off from the main – given by the course of the Moskva River, along which they arranged the first embankment. That plan is still going on to this day. There were two entrances to the exhibition. Visitors flocked to the central zone – the spacious Peoples' Square, and from here they dispersed, who went where: to inspect the pavilions, walk in the garden near the Golitsyn pond or relax by the river. Pavilions in the spirit of historicism and constructivism were dedicated to various branches of the young Soviet economy and to the peoples living on the territory of a large country.
Gorky Park. 1938.
After the end of the exhibition, it was decided to set up a park of culture and recreation of all-Union significance in its place. The project was even taken to the masses. The press actively discussed the proposals of architects and the various wishes of Muscovites. Many not only expressed ideas, but also came to the construction site as “volunteers”. As a result, on August 12, 1928, the park was solemnly opened by the whole world.
Gorky Park, view from the observation deck of the main entrance to the fountain and the central alley. 1970s.
The general plan of the park was developed by Konstantin Melnikov. Not all of the plans were implemented immediately. So, a grandiose fountain with light music appeared only … in the late 1970s. The architect thought over the entire infrastructure of the park. There was a bandstand, tea and snack bars, sports grounds and attractions. Small children could be left in the nursery. On the territory there was a library-reading room, a cinema hall and a boat station. Entry is 10 kopecks.
Project of the TsPKiO im. Gorky.
The first director of the park was the legendary Betty Nikolaevna Glan, who made it not just a place for walking, but the forge of the Soviet intellectual, “a cultural combine for the alteration of consciousness.” In the same years, Pushkinskaya Embankment, designed by Alexander Vlasov, and the Green Theater in Neskuchnoye, as we know them, appeared. In 1932, the park received a prefix to the name – in honor of the national writer Maxim Gorky. At the same time, Vlasov formed the current structure of the park, and a “Girl with an oar” by the main Soviet sculptor Ivan Shadr was placed near the cascade of ponds. The plastic decor of those years, including flower vases along the embankment, was restored during the latest reconstruction of the park, which returned it to its historical appearance.
The first reconstruction was carried out back in the 1950s, as the park was badly damaged during the war. And the most significant one already in the 2010s, after the new director Sergei Kapkov took over the park, which in the troubled 1990s turned into a grandiose shawl. In 2013, the restored arch of the Main Entrance, a masterpiece of the Stalinist Empire style, designed in 1956 by Georgy (Yuri) Shchuko and Assen Spasov, was solemnly opened.
Under Kapkov, the park was restored to its former splendor by restoring the Rosary, one of the first people's observatories in the country (opened in 1929), as well as the dream of all the children of the 1990s, the Buran spacecraft. They restored the landscape of the park, garden decoration, equipped a lot of sports grounds and cafes, opened a bike and other equipment rental, co-working and a running school. The Garage Museum of Contemporary Art moved here. In the summer, the Park hosts film and music festivals of the Park Live rank with headliners Gorillaz and Massive Attack, and in winter, the largest artificial skating rink in Europe.
Pokras Lampas appeared in the project for a reason. The artist is called the hero of a new wave of street art, and his works are used in their collections by brands of the Yves Saint Laurent rank. The park is 90, but right now it is experiencing its rebirth and finally became exactly what it was intended to be. The sculpture that symbolizes the park, with graffiti by Lampas, shows that the past is connected with the present, and that the present itself is bright, fresh and on edge.