Sports objects have become in our time no less a field for bold experiments than museums or concert halls. The impressive size and huge attention of journalists and fans ensure their status as iconic, iconic buildings of their time and require a mandatory wow effect from architects. We are looking forward to the completion of the construction of the stadium for the future Olympic Games in Tokyo designed by Kengo Kuma, dreaming of seeing the first completed stadium by Zaha Hadid Architects, but for now, on the eve of the FIFA World Cup 2018, we recall the most impressive arenas of the last two decades.
Spyros Louis in Athens by Santiago Calatrava
The content of the article:
- 1 Spyros Louis in Athens by Santiago Calatrava
- 2 Wembley Stadium in London by Foster + Partners and Populous
- 3 Beijing National Olympic Stadium by Herzog & amp; de Meuron
- 4 Allianz-Riviera in Nice by Wilmotte & amp; Associés
- 5 Manet National Stadium Garrinchi in Brasilia by gmp, schlaich bergermann partner and Castro Mello arquitetos
- 6 The stadium of the football club “BATE” from OFIS arhitekti in Borisov
- 7 Stade Vélodrome in Marseille by SCAU
- 8 Groupama Stadium in Lyon by Populous
- 8.0.1 2012–2015 The Populous International Bureau also has a wealth of experience in the construction of sports facilities. The stadium they created for the Olympique Lyon club is distinguished by an unusual large roof, which gives the whole building a resemblance to a turtle and, in the opinion of the architects, reminds of the surrounding forests. It covers the stands and, thanks to special acoustic panels, amplifies the sound, helping fans to preserve one of the traditions – a kind of song roll call, creating a loud cacophony of sounds. In addition, wide external roof eaves form protected public areas. Active evening lighting completes the bright image of the building. Capacity: up to 60,000 fans. New stadium in Bordeaux by Herzog & amp; de Meuron 2013–2015
- 9 Stadium of the Krasnodar football club in Krasnodar from gmp and Speech
Actually, the stadium was opened back in 1982, but on the eve of the long-awaited and symbolic return of the Olympic Games to Greece, it underwent reconstruction: it became part of the impressive Olympic Park and received a new roof. The main elements of the unique design are two thin and graceful arches up to 72 m high and a span of more than 300 m. All this resembles either the bend of a giant bow or the exquisite shape of a lyre. True, the architect himself says that the idea was suggested to him by the vaults of Byzantine buildings. Capacity: 69 618 viewers.
Wembley Stadium in London by Foster + Partners and Populous
The new stadium, which cost almost £ 800 million and became perhaps the most expensive in Europe, was built on the site of the dismantled old symbolic stadium, erected back in 1923. It turned out to be four times higher than its predecessor and occupied twice the territory. New Wembley received a special sliding roof and only one spectacular structural arch up to 133 m high and about 315 m long. It is this arch that supports the seven-ton roof and allows you to get rid of the supports. Roof sections retract in different directions, allowing you to adjust to the position of the sun and provide optimal conditions for good grass growth in the field. Capacity: 90,000 fans.
Beijing National Olympic Stadium by Herzog & amp; de Meuron
The famous Swiss are among the clear leaders in the field of stadium construction. Their “Bird's Nest” – so for the characteristic, as if chaotically wound shell, the building was nicknamed – practically has no walls, facades and roofs. All this forms the most complex curvilinear structures of a unique metal alloy, the gaps between which are filled with two types of transparent polymer material. Inside there is not an oval, but almost round bright red (the color of luck and joy in the Chinese tradition) a bowl made of concrete with stands installed on it, surrounded by a row of 24 columns. Capacity: up to 91,000 people.
Allianz-Riviera in Nice by Wilmotte & amp; Associés
Located just five kilometers from Nice airport in the so-called eco-valley of the Var River, the Allianz-Rivera stadium was to be naturally integrated into the surrounding nature and the area that is being formed in this area. The architects chose a rather compact composition for buildings of this scale. The structures of the building are double: the main internal “lattice” is made of wood, but supported by an additional volumetric “layer” of metal beams, which made it possible to achieve the necessary lightness and at the same time stability in an earthquake zone. From the outside, the structures are covered with a translucent polymer film with a thickness of only 0.25 mm, which provides good natural light and a spectacular interior glow of the entire building. Natural ventilation and solar panels on the roof allow the project to be classified as environmentally friendly. Capacity: 36 180 seats.
Manet National Stadium Garrinchi in Brasilia by gmp, schlaich bergermann partner and Castro Mello arquitetos
The bureau gmp Architekten von Gerkan, Marg und Partner also has vast experience in the design of sports facilities. In the case of the project of the new stadium in Brasilia, its architects had to work literally on the main axis of the ideal city of Oscar Niemeyer, moreover, they had to create the largest building of this formation, which arose in 1957-1960 and is entirely included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. This is how the bowl arose (designed by Eduardo Castro Mello, son and co-author of the architect of the demolished 1970s stadium), surrounded by a regular circular esplanade and a “forest” of 288 concrete supports. Columns with a diameter of 120 cm and a height of 43 to 59 m support a double suspended roof. It used Teflon-coated fiberglass and backlit mesh membrane. Capacity: about 72,800 fans.
The stadium of the football club “BATE” from OFIS arhitekti in Borisov
The aluminum shell of a stadium in a large industrial center sixty kilometers from the Belarusian capital is usually compared to the skin of a python. The shiny metal plates of the exterior finish really resemble scales, the bionic-shaped holes covered with mesh create an interesting rhythmic pattern, and the smooth thickenings of this circular “pipe” complete the resemblance to a snake or a dragon. It is interesting that a new and important object is located on the very border of the city, practically in the forest, which only enhances the feeling of alienation. Moreover, the Slovenian architects managed to avoid foreignness: the shimmering finish looks quite organic both in winter against the background of snow and in summer against the sky and “interacts” with the trunks and crowns of the surrounding pines. Among the distinctive features of the Borisov Arena is a budget of € 40 million, which is quite modest for such a scale of construction. Capacity: 13,000 people.
Stade Vélodrome in Marseille by SCAU
Another old European stadium, built in 1933 and undergoing renovation. French architects covered the building with a new undulating roof made of wear-resistant translucent fiberglass stretched over a metal frame. The architects themselves compare the jagged shape of the roof to a giant seashell. It also creates a dramatic outer glow and retains sound during matches and concerts. The stadium stands are named after famous local athletes and citizens of the city. Capacity: 67,000 viewers.
Groupama Stadium in Lyon by Populous
The Populous International Bureau also has a wealth of experience in the construction of sports facilities. The stadium they created for the Olympique Lyon club is distinguished by an unusual large roof, which gives the whole building a resemblance to a turtle and, in the opinion of the architects, reminds of the surrounding forests. It covers the stands and, thanks to special acoustic panels, amplifies the sound, helping fans to preserve one of the traditions – a kind of song roll call, creating a loud cacophony of sounds. In addition, wide external roof eaves form protected public areas. Active evening lighting completes the bright image of the building. Capacity: up to 60,000 fans.
New stadium in Bordeaux by Herzog & amp; de Meuron
For their French project, Jacques Herzog and Pierre de Meuron chose a “simple” rectangular shape, refined white color and “planted” 900 thin elongated columns around the perimeter. Associations with classical temple architecture are almost inevitable, especially since the bowl of the stadium is raised above ground level, forming solemn staircases. But the architects, in their own words, were guided not by ancient prototypes, but by the smooth surface of a neighboring lake, a flat local landscape and light pine forests located nearby, so their “temple” is maximally open to the environment. Capacity: 42,000 spectators.
Stadium of the Krasnodar football club in Krasnodar from gmp and Speech
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On the eve of the World Cup in Russia, interest in the construction of stadiums naturally increased. The German bureau gmp participated in the development of concepts for Nizhny Novgorod, Samara and Volgograd. In addition, it was they who were involved in the reconstruction for the 2006 world championship of the Berlin Olympic arena, built in 1936. And it was the classic solemn forms and solid, status materials that were chosen by the architects for their facility in Krasnodar, abandoning the almost obligatory bionics, lightness and permeability. The tall, coliseum-like arena with fluted pilasters made of natural light travertine nevertheless amazes with its clarity of forms, the severity of the three-part division and the purity of the rhythmic organization. The state-of-the-art high-tech materials were also not without: a fiberglass mesh with a light-conducting membrane covering was used to protect the stands. The stadium in Krasnodar and the landscape park around it are a private initiative of businessman and club owner Sergei Galitsky. Capacity: 33,000 people.